|The FBI has an open criminal investigation regarding potential terrorist activities in the U.S. The agency wants to gain access to personal information through Internet activities of certain individuals. Congress has passed which of the following acts that would allow the FBI to access this kind of information?
|USA Patriot Act.
|Congress passes a law prohibiting cigars made in Cuba from being sold in the United States. The Florida state legislature then passes a law allowing the sale of Cuban cigars in Florida. If the constitutionality of the Florida law is challenged in court, it will most likely be
|struck down on the basis of the supremacy clause.
|The city of Trenton, New Jersey, passed an ordinance making it unlawful to use any form of sound amplification on the city streets. Keller mounted a speaker on a truck. Through the speaker, he played music and spoke on a microphone while driving on city streets. Keller was convicted and fined $50. He appealed, arguing that the ordinance violated his rights of free speech and free assembly. The city claimed that the ordinance served a legitimate governmental function in keeping the city streets safe and orderly, and did not prohibit or unduly restrict any particular speech. The court probably found that the ordinance was
|constitutional as a reasonable restriction on fundamental rights.
|Garrett was a commercial tour boat operator on the northern coast of Kauai, Hawaii. He was licensed by the state of Hawaii to operate his boat in Hanalei Bay. The U.S. Department of Transportation and the U.S. Coast Guard also granted Garrett an unrestricted license to operate his boats in Hanalei Bay. Hawaii subsequently passed a law that banned all commercial use of Hanalei Bay. The state refused to renew Garrett’s state license and ruled that he was not allowed to operate his vessel based on his federal licenses. Garrett sued the state, alleging that the state law that prohibited him from operating his boat conflicted with the federal law that authorized him to do so. The court probably found that the state law was
|unconstitutional under the supremacy clause
|A Minnesota statute required all operators of slow-moving vehicles to display a fluorescent red triangular sign. Henderson, a member of the Amish religion, was charged with violating the statute. His defense was that the law violated his First Amendment right to freedom of religion because displaying “loud” colors on his slow-moving black buggy conflicted with his religious belief that he should remain separate from the modern world. Henderson stated that he was willing to display the sign if he could use silver, instead of red, reflective tape, which was equally effective. The state argued that the law applied to all equally. The court most likely found that the statute, as it applied to Henderson, was
|unconstitutional under the free exercise clause.
|A city ordinance allows only two hot dog stands to operate in the city’s downtown area. If someone who would like to add another hot dog stand challenges this ordinance under the equal protection clause, the rule will be subject to
|the rational basis test.
|A state legislature passes a statute prohibiting businesses from supporting any political candidate. If some business owners challenge the constitutionality of the law in court, will the law be upheld?
|No, because the law is an unconstitutional restriction on free speech.
|The Iowa legislature passed a law banning trucks 65 feet long or longer from operating on its roads and highways because big trucks do more damage to roads than smaller trucks and are involved in more serious accidents. Consolidated Freightways (CF) drove big trucks through Iowa on a regular basis, and these trucks were legal in other states. Switching to smaller trucks for trips through Iowa was inconvenient and costly. CF filed a lawsuit contending that the statute was unconstitutional. The court most likely found that the Iowa statute was
|unconstitutional under the “dormant” commerce clause.
|John operates a successful business selling child pornography. His enterprise is likely to be
|Ocean City passes an ordinance that prohibits all churches from meeting within its city limits. This rule affects the residents’ constitutional right to
|substantive due process.